On the Third Day

In today’s Gospel reading, Luke 24:35-48, the risen Jesus tells His disciples, “Thus it is written that the Christ would suffer and rise from the dead on the third day…”  Several times throughout the Gospels Jesus refers to rising from the dead three days after His crucifixion. Saint Paul, in 1 Corinthians 15:3-4, says, “For I handed on to you as of first importance what I also received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the Scriptures; that He was buried; that He was raised on the third day in accordance with the Scriptures…”  What Scriptures tell us about the Messiah being raised from the dead on the third day? I will answer the question.

Because this is a post, I will keep my response very simple and brief.  Some of the following is discussed in my dissertation, The Septuagintal Isaian Use of Nomos in the Lukan Presentation Narrative, published by ProQuest.

First, numerous Old Testament Biblical passages prophesy the coming of the Messiah—sometimes, more specifically, the Davidic Servant Messiah–and some foretell or imply His bodily resurrection, e.g., Psalm 16, in which the dead Messiah will emerge uncorrupt from Sheol.

Second, Isaiah refers to this individual Messiah as “Israel” (e.g., Isaiah 49), the ideal representation of Israel the nation, Who will restore its tribes.  In Isaiah, the Messiah, Israel, is not to be confused with the wayward nation, Israel, although He represents what it has been called to be.

Third, in Daniel 9:24-27, “the Anointed One, the Ruler,” will come but then will be “cut off.”  Chronologically, the time of His coming and demise seem to harmonize well with the time of the birth, ministry, crucifixion, and death of Christ.

Fourth, Hosea prophesies Israel’s restoration from the exile through atonement, in which the tribes of Israel will be raised up on the third day:

I will go back to my place until they present a sin-offering for their guilt and seek My presence.  In their affliction, they shall look for Me: “Come, let us return to the Lord, for it is He who has rent, but He will heal us; He has struck us, but He will bind our wounds.  He will revive us after two days; on the third day He will raise us up, to live in His presence.” (Hosea 5:15-6:1-2)

Earlier in Hosea (3:5), the prophet specifies that upon Israel’s return to God, they will seek the Davidic Messiah, the royal representative of Israel.  Since the Messiah is an Israelite among the tribes of Israel, and is responsible for their restoration, He also is risen on the third day. Importantly, His resurrection would be understood literally because of the earlier Old Testament prophecies of the Messiah’s personal bodily resurrection.  Hosea 6 also resonates the imagery depicted in Psalm 16 of the risen Davidic Messiah’s life and joy in the presence of God.

Isaiah, a near-contemporary of Hosea, prophesied the Servant Messiah’s (Israel’s) atonement: ’’the Lord laid upon Him the guilt of us all…He gives His life as an offering for sin…their guilt He shall bear” (Isaiah 53).  Moreover, as Israel, the nation’s representative, He raises up the tribes (Isaiah 49). Hence, viewing Isaiah in conjunction with Hosea, the Messiah redeems the nation’s guilt through His own atoning death and restores the children of Israel through His resurrection on the third day.  The atonement and restoration, effected by the Messiah, are inseparable. This makes sense because the Scriptures prophesy both the atoning death and resurrection of the Messiah, and this corresponds to the redemption following the dispersion/exile, and the restoration of the tribes of Israel, both effected by the Messiah Who represents Israel.

Fifth, Jesus insists not only that He was raised on the third day in accordance with the Scriptures, but also that He is the new Jonah, the sign of whom He gives: “Just as Jonah was in the belly of the sea monster three days and three nights, so the Son of Man will be in the heart of the earth three days and three nights” (Matthew 12:40).  (Jesus also refers to the repentance of the Ninevites as a sign.) As Jonah returned from Sheol, the abode of the dead (Jonah 2:2), so too Jesus will return from the dead. Jesus’ self-identification as the new Jonah, along with His own resurrection, corroborates His fulfillment of Hosea’s prophecy of Israel’s restoration made possible by the Messiah’s resurrection on the third day.

Mark Koehne teaches moral theology for Saint Joseph’s College Online Theology. Programs.

Memorial Day – Remembering the Ultimate Sacrifice

As our nation celebrates Memorial Day and honors those who have sacrificed their lives for the freedom of their country, it is a good time as Catholics to remember the ultimate sacrifice made by Jesus Christ for the freedom from sin of all of humanity – the Ultimate Sacrifice. In this Easter Season, we revel in the light of the resurrection, which is our proof that the sacrifice of Jesus on the cross was actually effective. Jesus’ giving of his life was worth the pain and suffering because it accomplished what it set out to do – show once and for all that God is more powerful than evil.

The resurrection is evidence of that. But do we really believe in the resurrection of Jesus Christ? We say these words whenever we recite the creed – but do we really believe them? It is an absurd concept – even Thomas didn’t believe it when the other apostles told him. He had to see the risen body of Jesus for himself. Jesus tells him, “Blessed are those who do not see, yet believe.” (John 20:29) I think St. Paul is the greatest example for us for that! And we can see, each in our own lives, our own personal encounters with Jesus that affirm His resurrection to us. Truly, it is only through the eyes of faith, through a relationship with Jesus, that one can believe in the resurrection.

As people of faith, we must ask ourselves, then, whether the resurrection makes a difference in how we live our lives – in how we approach situations, how we make decisions. The resurrection is proof that the unconditional love of God is the most powerful power in the world. It is more powerful than anything else, including anything that is not love. Think of all the ways, big and small, that we experience a lack of love in our lives – all the ways that we sin and are sinned against. God’s love is more powerful than all of that! Indeed, it is more powerful than death itself.

Well, if the unconditional love of God really is the most powerful power in the world, then our lives should reflect that. Money, prestige, power, time (I think efficiency is the most common way we fail to live in the resurrection – the most efficient solution is often not the most loving) are all secondary to, even at the service of, love. The measure of success in the Christian life is love. We see the effect of the resurrection in our lives when we see that something we did out of love has an intrinsic value. This is why they will know we are Christians by our love!

This weekend, we are mindful of the freedoms we enjoy thanks to those who have died for this country. Let us also be mindful of that freedom from sin gained for us through the Paschal Mystery of Jesus Christ, the freedom that enables unconditional love to be the ultimate power in our lives.

Carmina Chapp teaches theology for Saint Joseph’s College Online.

Christ is risen! He is risen, indeed!

Resurrection by NesterovChrist is risen! He is risen, indeed!

If there is any doubt about the veracity of that acclamation, the “indeed” removes it.

In contemporary academia, awash in moral relativism, the emphasis often is placed on skepticism at the expense of certainty – that is, the divorce of reason from faith. True intellectual engagement, however, need sacrifice neither questioning nor certainties. Faith and reason can and ought to live together in a wonderful and lively union.

When I was in graduate school, I participated in a student forum. It was a diverse group: a few Protestant ministers and a mix of Catholic lay and religious. The faculty mentor was a nominal Christian who described the Scriptures as something scholars must “push up against.” We had a meeting during Holy Week on how to preach on the “resurrection” (quotation marks intentional). One of the students said that if she were to preach an Easter sermon, it would be on the passage in John 20 in which, after the resurrection, Mary “recognizes” Jesus in the gardener. The theme, she said, is that the importance of Easter is that Mary experienced the resurrection, and not that it happened as a matter of fact. Implicit in this statement is that the resurrection may not have happened in-deed. Christ is risen! He is risen, in my experience! Surprisingly, my forum group thought this was a good idea, and anyone who disagreed with this notion kept quiet for fear of embarrassment at being a believer.

A faith that becomes subjective and privatized lacks true transformative power. It is a vanity that leads to despair when the bloom of youth and vigor fail. As Saint Paul preached to the Corinthians, “if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is vain; your faith also is vain” (1Cor. 15:14). Saint Paul admonishes the Corinthians to the contrary:

Christ has been raised, and because of this, so also shall we: Now if Christ is preached that He has been raised from the dead, how do some among you say that there is no resurrection of the dead? … But now Christ has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who are asleep. For since by a man came death, by a man also came the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive… 

1 Corinthians 15:12, 20-22

And what will Christ’s resurrection mean? Behold, I tell you a mystery; we will not all sleep, but we will all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet; for the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed. For this perishable must put on the imperishable, and this mortal must put on immortality. But when this perishable will have put on the imperishable, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then will come about the saying that is written, “Death is swallowed up in victory.”
          “O Death, where is your victory?
           O Death, where is your sting?”
The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law; but thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.
                                                                                                        1 Corinthians 15: 51-57

Every Easter for close to twenty years now, I think back to that forum, and how thankful I am to have had other wonderful faculty mentors who were great scholars and believers in the resurrection, and how grateful I am to be teaching at a Catholic college that marries faith and reason in a wonderful and lively exchange.

Christ is risen! He is risen, indeed!

Patricia Ireland is the Director of Theology Programs for Saint Joseph’s College Online.