MercyWorks: Compassion in Action

In Chapter 25 of the New Testament gospel of Matthew, Jesus focuses on    MercyWorks as the criteria of the Last Judgment.  Herein, Jesus refers to the need to feed the hungry, give drink to the thirsty, clothe the naked, visit the sick and those imprisoned, shelter homeless people, and bury those who have died.  Of note is the fact that each of these actions entails responding to others’ physical needs. During this extraordinary jubilee year of Mercy proclaimed by Pope Francis, it is good to reflect on each of these MercyWorks.  Before doing so, let us, first of all, consider the religious meaning of mercy.

The Works of Mercy, by the Master of Alkmaar made for the Church of Saint Lawrence in Alkmaar, Netherlands.

The Works of Mercy, by the Master of Alkmaar made for the Church of Saint Lawrence in Alkmaar, Netherlands.

In the scriptures, Mercy is constitutive of God’s nature. Mercy is what God does for humans because God loves each person God creates.  As Pope Francis has noted so beautifully, God’s mercy is a “caress of love.”   The mercy-ing God of the Hebrew Scriptures is fully revealed in Jesus’ person and actions narrated in the New Testament.  As the gospel writers indicate, during his public ministry Jesus graciously and lovingly responded mercifully to the many people such as the lame, the blind, the deaf and the mute,  those demon possessed and lepers  who brought their needs to him. Jesus dined with social outcasts such as tax collectors and prostitutes and provided bread and fish for thousands of people.    Likewise, Jesus invited those who wish to follow him to engage wholeheartedly in works of mercy.

So, what is the essence of Mercy?   It is being attentive and sensitive to the needs of others whom one encounters in everyday situations.    Mercy is heartfelt, compassionate love in action.  As Elaine Prevallet reflects: “Mercy makes our hearts spacious; it also mercies the space around us.  Mercy becomes the space we live in.” [1] Mercy is being in life in ways that concretize one’s love of God through one’s love of neighbor.   According to Thomas Merton, “To give mercy is … to participate …in the work of the new creation and of redemption.”[2] In effect, mercy-ing is healing, restorative activity.   With this understanding of the meaning of Mercy in mind, let us now reflect upon each of the MercyWorks, that is, the corporal works of Mercy.


feeding-the-poor-862797_1280In the Old Testament Book of Proverbs we read: “A generous person will be blessed for she or he shares food with the poor.” (21:13)  Additionally, the prophet Isaiah proclaimed to fellow Hebrews that sharing  food with the hungry is the kind of fasting that God desires. (See Isaiah 58:7)

During college, Norman Borlaug studied agriculture.  Later, this Iowan discovered how to breed highly fruitful strains of food plants which, in effect, saved the lives of a billion people, especially those in developing countries.  Borlaug, the father of the Green revolution, died in 2009.  Recently, a 100,000 dollar donation from the Green Bay Packers football team provided the resources for the Marian Fathers to build a bakery and instruct Rwandans on how to use it to provide food for their people.

The right to food is a basic human right.  That being said, in Westchester Country, New York, which is one of the wealthiest counties in the United States, currently 200,000 residents are hungry or at risk of hunger.  More than half of these residents are seniors and one-third are children under the age of 18.  Globally, 3 million children die of malnutrition each year. This means that every 4 seconds another child on Earth loses his or her life.


Jesus said: “Whoever gives to one of these little ones even a cup of cold water … shall not lose his or her reward.” (Mt. 10:40 – 42) Today, water shortages are a common reality in different parts of our world.  For many people, safe, drinkable water is not readily available. Globally, each day several thousand children die due to diarrhea caused by unsafe water and poor sanitation.  Given this reality, we might ask ourselves how far we each need to go to satisfy our thirst.  For almost a billion people on Earth the answer to that question is at least four miles a day.


In Luke’s gospel, Jesus instructs the person who has two coats to share with another who has none. (See Luke 3:11)  In today’s world, millions of people cannot afford to purchase adequate clothing to protect themselves from the elements.  In contrast, there are many who possess an over-abundance in this regard.  Although clothes do not make the person, clothes and human dignity go hand-in-hand.  That being said, engaging in this MercyWork upholds the dignity of one’s brother or sister by ensuring the basic necessity of sufficient clothing. 


During his public ministry, Jesus encountered many sick people.  He reached out in love to those suffering from illness; he spoke encouraging words to them; sometimes, he physically touched them; and he healed them of their maladies.

Often those who are sick become discouraged and feel lonely.  Some of the sick live in their own homes; others are in hospitals; many reside in long-term care facilities.  Visiting those who suffer from short or long term illness is a way of bringing comfort and care to them.  It is a way of letting them know that they are not forgotten and that their lives matter.  It is a way of lightening their suffering.  One’s presence and willingness to listen are immeasurable gifts to sick persons.


Jesus said: “I was in prison and you came to me.” (Mt. 25:36)  Currently, in the United States a higher percentage of the population is in prison than in any other nation on Earth.  Today, 2,240,000 people (one in every 139 citizens) live in prisons in our country.  This includes a number of men and women incarcerated for crimes that they did not commit.  Life in prison can be very hard and, in general, much is lacking in rehabilitation programs that exist in our prison system.  Prisoners look forward to visits; they appreciate others’ taking time to be with them.  Spending time with those in prison is truly a MercyWork.


The author of the Letter to the Hebrews insisted: “Do not neglect to show hospitality to strangers, for thereby some have entertained angels unaware.” (13:2) Today, there are many refugees from war-torn countries and countries where safety is an issue due to human or drug trafficking.   Millions are leaving their lives behind to seek shelter elsewhere.  Of note is the fact that etched on the base of the State of Liberty in New York harbor are these words:  “Give me your tired, your poor,/ Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,/ The wretched refuse of your teeming shore./ Send these the homeless, tempest tossed to me, /I lift my lamp beside the golden door.

Also, because of floods, earthquakes and hurricanes, people can suddenly become homeless.  Those who come to the aid of victims of these kinds of natural disasters not only rebuild homes but, more importantly, rebuild the spirits of those who suffer from such catastrophic, life-changing events.

Furthermore, homelessness can result from long-term unemployment or a medical condition that depletes an individual or family’s financial resources.  In the United States, a significant percentage of the homeless are military veterans.   Long-term homelessness can lead to alcoholism, drug abuse, or psychological illness.

In Rome, to the right of St. Peter’s Basilica, Pope Francis had showers installed for homeless people.  Very near to these showers, a new shelter for the homeless is being built today.  In this way, the pope is making clear how important it is to provide shelter for those in need.


In the Christian tradition, burying the dead is based on the sacredness of the human person.  After Jesus died, his deposition from the cross, his being buried in Joseph of Arimathea’s tomb, and women’s coming to the burial place on Easter Sunday to anoint Jesus’ body with spices model honoring the person who has died.

Proper burial of the dead gives expression to words of the psalmist:  “Precious in the sight of the Lord is the death of the saints.”  (Psalm 116:15)  It is a way of demonstrating that the life of the deceased was valued and continues to have value because she or he is sacred in the eyes of God.


There is an urgent need in our world today to witness to Mercy by doing the corporal works of mercy.  Pope Francis has said that what our world needs is the medicine of mercy and Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI insists that “There will always be situations of material need where help in the form of concrete love of neighbor is indispensable.”[3]  The word “misericordia” (translated “mercy”) means a heart that gives itself to those in need.  In his Letter to the Romans, St. Paul insists that the one who does acts of mercy do so cheerfully. (See Rom. 12:8)  And so, whenever and wherever we engage in MercyWorks, let us do so in a warmhearted and most generous way!

Sr. Marilyn Sunderman, R.S.M., teaches theology at Saint Joseph’s College.


[1]Elaine M. Prevallet, S.L., “Living in the Mercy” in The Way of Mercy, ed. Christine M. Bochen (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2016), 125.

[2] Thomas Merton, “The Climate of Mercy” in The Way of Mercy, ed. Christine M. Bochen (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2016), 82.

[3]Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI, Encyclical Letter: Deus Caritas Est, 28 [ – accessed 10.11.2106.]

Aesthetics as Comprehensive Solution

How can religion and science work together to solve the ecological crisis? According to Pope Francis, a dialogue between religion and science is necessary to grasp the ultimate meaning and purpose of things.

It cannot be maintained that empirical science provides a complete explanation of life, the interplay of all creatures and the whole of reality. This would be to breach the limits imposed by its own methodology. If we reason only within the confines of the latter, little room would be left for aesthetic sensibility, poetry, or even reason’s ability to grasp the ultimate meaning and purpose of things.  (LS 199)

Religion and science both must dialogue to look for a solution to the environmental crisis. Otherwise, there will be little room for an aesthetic sensibility. It is precisely at this aesthetic sensibility that Hispanic theologian Alejandro García-Rivera (1951-2010) was looking in his work when proposing a theological cosmology.  After revising Teilhard de Chardin’s work, García-Rivera proposed a cosmological question from which Teilhard would profit: Where is Jesus now? The answer to this question will bring three new dimensions to Teilhard’s Christology and will let us understand more the role of a theological cosmology in the recovery of the aesthetic value of creation. These three new dimensions are the relevance of the Ascension, the notion of place and the role of beauty.

Following this postulate, García-Rivera turns his reflection to the role of the Holy Spirit in building his theological cosmology.  The fully cosmic Christ is also the Christ who sends the Holy Spirit. The role of the Holy Spirit is not simply to be the ultimate source of the beauty of living forms, but also to be the source of unity between us and their beauty. In doing so, the Holy Spirit shows us the way to our home in the cosmos. Through this understanding of the Holy Spirit’s role, we realize that “we are not simply to enjoy the living forms but also to be formed by their beauty.”

FlowerIdentifying the Holy Spirit as the “one who not only is the ultimate source of beauty of living forms but also the One who unites us to their beauty” helps us to understand stewardship in a new sense.  The stewardship of creation made us realize that we are formed by the same beauty of the living forms.  This is how stewardship must understand. In this sense, stewardship is a process that involved both “gift and giving, creating and appreciating.”

In the final chapter of Laudato Si’, Pope Francis makes clear that just as the problem is comprehensive, so must be the solution. A new aspect of Christian spiritual formation must occur, one based not on the materialist paradigm, but on the awareness of the spiritual connections among all aspects of the created world: “Environmental education should facilitate making the leap toward the transcendent which gives ecological ethics its deepest meaning” (LS 210); in other words, the process must entail the kind of “profound inner conversion” toward gratitude and generosity that we see in St. Francis of Assisi (LS 217-20).

One of the most profound and moving aspects of Laudato Sí is that Pope Francis’ voice is not one crying in the wilderness; in fact, he joins a growing call from people of all faiths, and of no religious faith, to re-evaluate our distorted commitment to “techonology über alles” and a materialistic worldview, and embrace a vision of reality, the breathtaking interdependence of all that is. Voices such as David Seidenberg (Jewish), David Loy (Zen), Will Tuttle (Buddhist, vegan), the aforementioned Alejandro García-Rivera, and of course Pope Francis, may be a minority in literal numbers. The swelling cascade of calls, however, to challenge the culturally inherited technocratic and dominance paradigm suggests to many of us that we are reaching a tipping point.  May we soon collectively turn from this deathly pattern and toward a paradigm of transformation by grace into the image and likeness of God, of the generosity that is the only legitimate response to the privilege of existing as a part of this stunningly beautiful world. And as Pope Francis encourages, “Let us sing as we go” (LS 244).

Nelson Araque teaches History of Latino Catholics in the Ministry to Latino Catholics Certificate Program and Pamela Hedrick teaches Sacred Scripture and spirituality for Saint Joseph’s College Online.

Technocratic Model vs. An Integral and Integrated Vision

Chapter Three of Laudato Sí is entitled “The Human Roots of the Ecological Crisis;” it could well be called “Original Sin, Reprise.” Once again, humans have participated with God in creating things with enormous potential for good, in this case all that falls under the term “modern technology,” then proceeded to spend an inordinate amount of time distorting that potential goodness.  We have done it now to the point that we worship (there is hardly another word for it) “an undifferentiated and one-dimensional technocratic paradigm” [italics his], increasing the tendency of the scientific method as “a technique of possession, mastery and transformation” (L.S. 107) to the point that this paradigm devastatingly dominates the world economy. “The economy accepts every advance in technology with a view to profit, without concern for its potentially negative impact on human beings” (L.S. 109).

As if that critique were not disturbing enough, the Holy Father goes on to strike at the very root of the distortion, “an inadequate presentation of Christian anthropology” that has resulted in an “anthropocentrism” of mastery over rather than stewardship of the rest of Creation (L.S. 115-6).  (Notice how deeply ingrained the distortion is: we tend to say “creation” when we mean “everything except us.” The paradigm of dominance is woven into our everyday language.) Pope Francis wisely highlights the interconnectedness of the reality, and hence of the distortion: we cannot heal our relationship with the rest of creation in isolation, nor heal our human relationships without addressing the former: healing, like violence, is of a package (L.S. 119).

The counterpart of the technocratic model in which we are living according to Pope Francis in Chapter 3 is the need for a humanism with an integral and integrated vision, as Pope Francis explains,

We urgently need a humanism capable of bringing together the different fields of knowledge, including economics, in the service of a more integral and integrating vision. (LS, 141)

This integral and integrated vision of reality is urgently need right now because modernity img_0856based its great progress in the separation of the subject form the object. For Roberto Goizueta, theology professor at Boston College, modernity gave birth to “the autonomous agent of his or her own life” who does not just live in history but makes history. In this way “history is a product of the human activity or praxis.” The consequences of this view are reflected in our own language: “The modern subject ‘makes’ a living, ‘makes’ love, and strives to ‘make something’ of himself or herself.” This “making” of everything creates a separation of the subject from the object that Goizueta sees as a “precondition for the subject to control the object in order to manipulate it.”

The separation of the subject from the object implicit in the understanding of human activity as praxis has lead us to great advances in modernity. However, what caught Goizueta’s attention is the fact that “human beings can control and transform their natural and social environments, as well as their own lives,” which also carries with it the ideology of progress characteristic of modernity.

Thus, for Goizueta, modernity gave birth to the human subject as “maker” of history, as alienated from the object and able to “control” and “work on” his or her environment.

Human action–praxis, grounded in the separation of the subject from the object as modernity understood in Goizueta’s view has also “laid the foundation for the devastation of the environment”

This devastation of the environment which foundation was laid on by the separation of the object from the subject and that brought great progress, today is in need of an integral and  integrated  vison or what Pope Francis calls integral ecology, an approach to ecology that insist that environmental and social problems are interconnected, as Pope Francis explains,

We are faced not with two separate crises, one environmental and the other social, but rather with one complex crisis which is both social and environmental. Strategies for a solution demand an integrated approach to combating poverty, restoring dignity to the excluded, and at the same time protecting nature. (LS, 139)

This integral and integrated approach to ecology described by Pope Francis implies an “economic ecology” which considers that   “the protection of the environment is in fact ‘an integral part of the development process and cannot be considered in isolation from it.’” (L.S. 141). A “social ecology” that understand that” the health of a society’s institutions has consequences for the environment and the quality of human life.” Because as Pope Benedict XVI in Caritas Veritate says, “Every violation of solidarity and civic friendship harms the environment.” (51) Finally, this integral and integrated vision of ecology requires a “cultural ecology” that lead to accept that “Culture is more than what we have inherited from the past; it is also, and above all, a living, dynamic and participatory present reality, which cannot be excluded as we rethink the relationship between human beings and the environment” (L.S. 143).

Nelson Araque teaches History of Latino Catholics in the Ministry to Latino Catholics Certificate Program and Pamela Hedrick teaches Sacred Scripture and spirituality forSaint Joseph’s College Online.

Ecumenism, One of the Fruits of Laudato Si’

This is the first of a three-part series celebrating the anniversary of Laudato Si’.

We just celebrated the first anniversary of Laudato Si’ and we are still reaping it fruits. This papal letter has positioned the environmental crisis directly within the social sphere, requiring a comprehensive response and commitment from all of us. Undoubtedly, I think the most recent result of this encyclical on caring for “our common house” is ecumenism.

Unitatis Redintegratio defines ecumenism as “the initiatives and activities planned and undertaken, according to the various needs of the Church and as opportunities offer, to promote Christian unity.” (UR 4).

Clearly, one of the major concerns of our time is the environmental crisis. Pope Francis uses it as a springboard to promote the unity of Christians. He quotes Orthodox Patriarch Bartholomew’s concern for “the need for each to repent of their own ways for damaging the planet “(LS 8) and the Patriarch’s view of the ethical and spiritual roots of environmental problems (LS 9).

The call of Pope Francis to ecumenism is also demonstrated in last year announcement on the Feast of the Transfiguration of the Lord on August 6: “I wish to inform you that I have decided to set up also in the Catholic Church, the “World Day of Prayer for the Care of Creation” which, beginning this year, will be celebrated on the 1st of September, as the Orthodox Church has done for some time now.”

This time it is the Pope, the representative of the Catholic Church, who recognizes the value of this commemoration by the Orthodox Church and invites Roman Catholics to unite with them as fellow Christians to celebrate this Day of Prayer for the Care of Creation together.

The announcement of the World Day of Prayer for the Care of Creation and its first celebration in September, 2016, seems implied in Laudato Si’ and becomes clear when presenting the encyclical as valued by the representative of the Patriarch Bartholomew, Metropolitan Ioannis of Pergamon. The text for the institution of the World Day for Care of Creation by Pope Francis makes this point:

“Sharing with my beloved brother the Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew his concerns for the future of creation (cf. Encyclical Letter. Laudato Si’, 7-9) and taking up the suggestion by his representative, the Metropolitan Ioannis of Pergamum who took part in the presentation of the Encyclical Laudato Si’ on the care of our common home, I wish to inform you that I have decided to set up also in the Catholic Church, the ‘World Day of Prayer for the Care of Creation’ which, beginning this year, will be celebrated on the 1st of September, as the Orthodox Church has done for some time now.”

This ecumenical observance that will be celebrated every September 1 invites us to pray with our Orthodox brothers and sisters. It will require a deep inner conversion, as Unitatais Redintegratio says:  “There can be no ecumenism worthy of the name without a change of heart. For it is from renewal of the inner life of our minds from self-denial and an unstinted love that desires of unity take their rise and develop in a mature way. “(UR 7).

That change of heart spoken by the decree Unitatis Redintegratio also involves a constant review of the motivations fueling our passion for the care of creation and spirituality, as it is clearly expressed in 2016 Message for the World Day of Prayer for Creation: Show mercy to Our Common Home.

“The first step in this process is always an examination of conscience, which involves “gratitude and gratuitousness, a recognition that the world is God’s loving gift, and that we are called quietly to imitate his generosity in self-sacrifice and good works… It also entails a loving awareness that we are not disconnected from the rest of creatures, but joined in a splendid universal communion. As believers, we do not look at the world from without but from within, conscious of the bonds with which the Father has linked us to all beings.”

This examination of conscience that Pope Francis is asking us for will renew our connection with God’s creation, achieving a communion with all that surrounds us, to look for the solutions to this ecological crisis, as our Pope expressed in Laudato Si’:

“More than in ideas or concepts as such, I am interested in how such a spirituality can motivate us to a more passionate concern for the protection of our world. A commitment this lofty cannot be sustained by doctrine alone, without a spirituality capable of inspiring us, without an ‘interior impulse which encourages, motivates, nourishes and gives meaning to our individual and communal activity.’ Admittedly, Christians have not always appropriated and developed the spiritual treasures bestowed by God upon the Church, where the life of the spirit is not dissociated from the body or from nature or from worldly realities, but lived in and with them, in communion with all that surrounds us.” (LS 216)

An ecumenical gesture of openness, to universally see the good in other churches is yet another gift that Laudato Si’ offers us, and calls us to witness this in our lives. In the words of our Holy Father: “This Day of Prayer for Creation Care will be a valuable opportunity to bear witness to our growing communion with our orthodox brothers.” It is precisely by this communion in prayer and reflection that we will take important steps to overcome common challenges more easily and be more credible and effective. In the words of our Holy Father, “We live in a time where all Christians are faced with identical and important challenges and we must give common replies to these in order to appear more credible and effective.”

Nelson Araque teaches History of Latino Catholics in the Ministry to Latino Catholics Certificate Program and Pamela Hedrick teaches Sacred Scripture and spirituality for Saint Joseph’s College Online.